Cultural Exchange category 12 Notes Sociology

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CBSE Information Cultural Exchange category 12 Notes Sociology

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12 Sociology notes Bankruptcy 2 Cultural Exchange

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CBSE Elegance 12 Sociology
Revision Notes
Cultural Exchange category 12 Notes Sociology

Details that Topicange

  • Cultural trade refers back to the trade in customs, traditions, ideals, way of life, behaviour and many others. (We were given impressed via the British garments, and many others).
  • Have an effect on of British on our tradition, values, norms, principally any affect or trade at the cultural aspect.
  • Exchange in sides of day by day existence.

Social Reformers

  • Throughout British rule, social reformers sought after to modify the social machine, in India.
  • Converting existence of girls and Dalits, ridding of social evils, making sure schooling for ladies and many others.
    1. Raja Ram Mohun Roy-started Brahrno Samaj and abolished Sati Pratha.
    2. Dayanand Saraswati began Arya Samaj.
  • Social reformers got here right through British rule and no longer Mughal rule for the reason that British attempted to modify/form the social machine.

Trendy Communique and Delivery

  • British introduced in railways and postal machine, additionally they made development within the roads.
  • Postal machine and railways get advantages each, for the reason that British used this to move items and facilitate simple motion and the Indians benefited from this as via simple delivery, they may facilitate, the liberty combat.
  • Although simple commute one would transfer from one position to some other and one would additionally know what used to be going down in all places the rustic.

New Organisation

  • Social reformers would cling debates and speak about essential problems.
  • Associations have been arrange in all places the country.
  • Social reformers arrange their very own affiliation of their respective states, e.g., Raja Ram Mohun Roy’s Brahmo Sarna] in West Bengal.
  • Reformers would write in journals and newspapers.
  • Reformers have been neatly skilled.

New Concepts

  • When Colonial rule began we have been influenced in all sides of existence.
  • This modified the relationships between moms and daughters as a result of liberalism and freedom of concept got here into being. This modified the outlook of existence, relationships.
  • Furnishings and inner design in their homes modified with using settee and eating set – and crockery.
  • Social reformers debated whether or not ladies must be skilled, this ended in formation of associations writing in journalism, newspapers and many others. e.g. Jyotiba Phule.
  • there used to be a distinction in interpretation, expansion of concepts and gave them a greater outlook of existence.
  • Ranade and Ishwar Chandra Vidayasagar all in favour of widow remarriage, however that they had other approaches to it.
  • Ranade – widow remarriage, we will have to deal with the diversities permitted to Vedas. Ishwar requested males to obey them).
  • Many social reformers believed on equivalent problems and sides of existence however that they had other approaches to it.

Primary Cultural Adjustments In India

I. Sanskritisation

  • Coined via M.N. Srinivas.
  • The method in which a ‘low’ caste or tribe or different team takes over the customs, ritual, ideals, ideology and magnificence of lifetime of a top and, specifically, a ‘twice-born (dwija) caste’.

Have an effect on of sanskritisation

The affect of Sanskritisation is many-sided. Its affect will also be observed in language, literature, ideology, song, dance, drama, taste of existence and formality.

It’s essentially a procedure that takes position inside the Hindu house although Srinivas argued that it used to be visual even in sects and spiritual teams out of doors Hinduism. Research of various spaces, then again, display that it operated otherwise in several portions of the rustic.

In the ones spaces the place a extremely Sanskritised caste used to be dominant, the tradition of all the area underwent a specific amount of Sanskritisation.

In areas the place the non-Sanskritic castes have been dominant, it used to be their affect that used to be more potent. This will also be termed the method of ‘de-Sanskritisation’.

There have been different regional diversifications too. In Punjab culturally Sanskritic affect used to be by no means very robust. For plenty of centuries till the 3rd quarter of the 19th century the Persian affect used to be the dominant one.

Sanskritiastion and teams social place

Srinivas argued that, “the Sanskritisation of a gaggle has typically the impact of bettering its place within the native caste hierarchy.

It in most cases presupposes both an development within the financial or political place of the gang involved or the next team self-consciousness on account of its touch with a supply of the ‘Nice Custom’ of Hinduism comparable to a pilgrim centre or a monastery or a proselytising sect.”

However in a extremely unequal society comparable to India there have been and nonetheless are stumbling blocks to any simple taking up of the customs of the upper castes via the decrease.

Certainly, historically, the dominant caste punished the ones low castes, which have been audacious sufficient to aim it. The tale under captures the issue.”


Sanskritisation as an idea has been criticised at other ranges.

  1. One, it’s been criticised for exaggerating social mobility or the scope of ‘decrease castes’ to transport up the social ladder. For it results in no structural trade however most effective positional trade of a few folks.
  2. it’s been identified that the ideology of sanskritisation accepts the tactics of the ‘higher caste’ as awesome and that of the ‘decrease caste’ as inferior. Due to this fact, the will to mimic the ‘higher caste’ is observed as herbal and fascinating.
  3. ‘Sanskritisation’ turns out to justify a type that rests on inequality and exclusion. Apparently to indicate that to consider in air pollution and purity of teams of other people is justifiable or all proper.
  4. Since sanskritisation leads to the adoption of higher caste rites and rituals it results in practices of secluding women and girls, adopting dowry practices as an alternative of bride-price and practicing caste discrimination towards different teams, and many others.
  5. The impact of this sort of pattern is that the important thing traits of dalit tradition and society are eroded. For instance the very price of labour which ‘decrease castes’ do is degraded and rendered ‘shameful’.

II. Westernisation

M.N. Srinivas defines westernisation as “the adjustments caused in Indian society and tradition on account of over 150 years of British rule, the time period subsuming adjustments going on at other ranges…generation, establishments, ideology and values.

Other types of westernisation

  • One type refers back to the emergence of a westernised sub-cultural trend via a minority segment of Indians who first got here involved with Western tradition.
  • This integrated the sub tradition of Indian intellectuals who no longer most effective followed many cognitive patterns, or tactics of considering, and kinds of existence, however supported its growth. Most of the early 19th century reformers have been of this type.
  • There have been, due to this fact, small sections of people that followed western existence kinds or have been suffering from western tactics of considering.
  • There was additionally the overall unfold of Western cultural characteristics, comparable to using new generation, get dressed, meals, and adjustments within the conduct and kinds of other people usually.
  • Around the nation an excessively vast segment of center category houses have a tv set, a refrigerator, some more or less settee set, a eating desk and chair in the lounge.
  • Westernisation does contain the imitation of exterior varieties of tradition. It does no longer essentially imply that folks undertake trendy values of democracy and equality.

Westernisation within the fresh context

Conflicts between generations are observed as cultural conflicts on account of westernisation.

Western Approach of Pondering

  • Freedom of concept: Social informers attempted to uplift standing of dalit, ladies.
  • Liberty: Individualism was Vital.
  • But even so trade in behaviour patterns and customs and many others, there used to be a metamorphosis in artwork and structure.
    e.g., Raja Ravi Varma-first to color a nuclear circle of relatives. Previous they’d paint most effective joint households.
  • Structure-parliament constructions, homes, railway stations.

Two tactics of concept
1. Western thinkers began considering like them e.g. the best way they handled ladies.
2. Western practices have been influenced via their ideals, meals, customs, means of talking, and many others

Normal Conflicts between generations have been at all times prevalent in society.

II. Modernisation
Modems considering and concepts affect. Exchange in thoughts units, existence adjustments for higher options:
1. Because of globalization and broader outlook, common/cosmopolitan attitudes are changing native ones.
2. Science and generation has changed non-rational, emotional considering, anything else hooked up to faith.
three. Place of work and circle of relatives have been combined in combination, however now paintings and private existence are separate. (Ahead of complete circle of relatives would paintings in combination)
four. Person is given extra significance than team. Now folks don’t need any establishment and need freedom of concept, concepts and many others. Nuclear circle of relatives is extra essential and preferable than joint.
five. Completed/Received standing is extra essential than ascribed standing.
6. When other people pick out up paintings and keep up a correspondence with other people, they go together with those that are, related to their completed standing (colleagues, boss and many others) than with the ones from ascribed standing.
7. Perspective,e of other people in opposition to the human surroundings and herbal surroundings has, modified for the easier because the instances have modified. We don’t affiliate nature with faith. We’re in fact concurred with the surroundings.

Modernisation and Secularisation

  • Our angle in opposition to faith has modified with modernisation. One does no longer characteristic the whole lot to faith.
  • Modernity and Secularism (custom) are the 2 facets of a coin. They cross hand in hand.
  • If we don’t stay up all traditions we will be able to’t be a part of the worldwide village and if we don’t modernise them we will be able to’t broaden and develop.
  • With modem concepts and considering, the non secular sides aren’t given the similar significance.
  • Because of Sanskritisation, the tribes really feel that their tradition is being eroded and so as to save you that from going down, they have got group celebrations.
  • To retain and deal with their id they are trying to turn the others to not fail to remember it and display harmony.
  • The native calendar has been changed via the English calendar. Now we’re a part of the worldwide village and we now have sedateness.
  • Ceremonies, rituals and many others have modified. Now it’s group over personal.
  • “Village show of wealth” now that may be a need for materialistic items and so traditions have modified from what they was.
  • It’s now a standing image and celebrations are extra elaborate.
  • Coming in of contemporary considering and concepts via (British, trendy tell actions began arising.
  • As an alternative of the outdated concepts (kid marriage and many others). We have new concepts (schooling of woman kid, and many others). Now it’s extra in opposition to bettering standing of girls and dalits and no longer most effective the normal practices.
  • Now rituals and customs are much less essential and materialistic issues are extra essential (celebrities dance, sing, fashion designer garments, catering and many others).
  • We take it without any consideration that as we’re modernising we’re changing into extra secular.
  • Faith can typically disappear from one lives. As we’re changing into extra modem, we suppose that the significance of faith will become worse. This isn’t true as practicing dowry, honour killings nonetheless exist.

Rituals-Secular Measurement isn’t the same as Secular Function

  • These days ceremonies, celebrations are given extra significance than the true rituals.
  • Materialistic items.are extra essential.
  • Marriage ceremonies, the true rituals aren’t given significance.
  • Secular dimension-when you don’t give significance to faith, however whilst doing non secular apply other people get to sing their own praises alternative to socialize, keep up a correspondence and many others and sing their own praises.
  • Secular objective social-economic sides are given extra significance than rituals (when dancing, meals and many others is extra essential)
  • Now what issues maximum is what came about within the marriage ceremony and no longer the rituals.

Secularisation of Caste

  • As soon as upon a time caste used to be referred to with air pollution purity and the practices have been essential.
  • Now politicians use caste for vote banks.
  • Energy and Authority are essential for politicians they usually use faith, area, caste, language, and many others to get those.
  • They make complete use of the regulation for faith and caste to Indians.
  • Caste machine is the weak point of the Indian society.
  • Caste identities have political backing .

Cultural Exchange category 12 Notes Sociology

  • CBSE Revision notes (PDF Obtain) Loose
  • CBSE Revision notes for Elegance 12 Sociology PDF
  • CBSE Revision notes Elegance 12 Sociology – CBSE
  • CBSE Revisions notes and Key Issues Elegance 12 Sociology
  • Abstract of the NCERT books all chapters in Sociology category 12
  • Brief notes for CBSE category 12th Sociology
  • Key notes and bankruptcy abstract of Sociology category 12
  • Fast revision notes for CBSE board tests

CBSE Elegance-12 Revision Notes and Key Issues

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